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02.08.16 Chodes, John, The Union League: Washington’s Klan (Now a section in The League of the South Papers, published in 1999.

Most recent discussion of Political Reconstruction, as directed by the Republican Party within the conquered Southern States (1865-1874), dwells upon violence by Southerners during the period as if it were unprovoked ethnic cleansing and a mark of Southern evil.  But the true story of the struggles during that time is quite different.

John Chodes (1939– ), New York dramatist and historian, gives a convincing account of the Union League, a semi-secret paramilitary arm of the Republican party, and its role in inaugurating and perpetuating violence in the Reconstruction South.

This article was first published in a hard-to-find pamphlet.  It was republished in 2012 as a section within The League of the South Papers, Michael Hill, editor, and is available through