American History for Home Schools, 1607 to 1885
With a Focus on Our Civil War
Written by Sixteen Members of The Society of Independent Southern Historians as a Gift to America’s Home School Families
Editors and Lead Writers are Society co-founders:
Clyde N. Wilson, Ph.D. of SC, and
Howard Ray White of NC.
The other Writers are:
Joyce Bennett of MD,
Vance Caswell of NC,
The late William Cawthon of AL,
Paul C. Graham of SC,
Earl L. Ijames of NC,
Gail Jarvis of GA,
Patrick J. Kealey of CA,
Steve Litteral of IL,
Barbara G. Marthal of TN,
Karen Stokes of SC,
Joseph Stromberg of GA,
The late Egon R. Tausch of TX,
Leslie R. Tucker of OK, and
H. V. Traywick of VA.
First published in October 2018. © Copyright belongs to The Society of Independent Southern Historians, a nonprofit educational organization registered in North Carolina. See www.southernhistorians.org. and www.amazon.com.
Much of American History for Home Schools, 1607 to 1885 was first published by the Society in 2015 under the title Understanding the War Between the States.
Like this new Home Schools edition, that previous edition provided a broad view of American history going back to settling the British colonies of North America, beginning at Jamestown, Virginia Colony, in 1607. So, recently, Society members decided to publish this variation to allow home schools to quickly grasp the book’s applicability to their needs for a truthful and balanced history of America.
Students need to go back 254 years (8 to 10 generations) and move forward to the year 1861 to properly experience the cultural and political divisions that led to Political Sectionalism, State Secession, War, and Political Reconstruction. So, our authors take you back to the beginning and rapidly move forward. Stated another way, this gift to America will enhance understanding of our colonial days; our fight for independence from Great Britain (the American Revolution); our amazing westward expansion to the Mississippi and beyond; the 1850’s political sectionalism in the Northern States that created its Republican Party and resulted in State Secession in the South; a Federal Invasion of the Confederate States; 4-years of horrific war, followed by the aftermath: Political Reconstruction, which replaced State Rights with a far more powerful Federal Government.
The Society has written this booklet for diligent and inquisitive youth of Middle School and High School age who have inquiring minds and are engaged in formal study of history in home school. It is also helpful to parents of home schooled youth.
The expense of engaging the home schooled student with this book is minimal because it is provided at minimal cost in print form and free of charge in computer download and e-book forms. No authors have earned any money from their contributions; they have volunteered their time in hopes of benefiting you, the inquiring student and his or her parents.
Who are we? The Society of Independent Southern Historians is a non-profit, web-site-based, educational association registered in North Carolina. Although membership is concentrated in the Southern States, it encompasses all of the American States. The copyright for this work is held by the Society, which only requires that no one alter this booklet or copy and/or reprint it for resale.
The book cover shows a map of America in 1820 with a focus on the Southern States and the new state of Missouri. This was an important year in American history, the year of the so-called “Missouri Compromise.” In that year Congress admitted two States: Missouri, which allowed slavery and Maine (split off from Massachusetts, which did not allow slavery). This kept representation in the US Senate evenly divided between Southern States and Northern States. The statehood legislation also promised that slavery might be allowed in all future States below latitude 30 degrees and 30 minutes, but not above. President James Monroe of Virginia signed this major 1820 legislation into law.
Approximately 600,000 Africans were imported into North America, primarily in ships operated out of Great Britain and New England. By the time of the War Between the States (1860 census), the population of African immigrants and their descendants had expanded by approximately 700 percent: to 3,950,528 who were bonded to owners (slaves) and 476,748 who were independent (free), a little over half of the latter living in the Southern States. These men and women can take pride in the role they played in raising families and building America. We also present their history and how their lives were impacted by the Civil War and the Political Reconstruction that followed.
We also tell how Native Americans suffered.
This booklet imparts a clear and truthful understanding of the most horrific war ever suffered in North America. Sadly, that is bloody business. If the bodies of the 400,000 Federal dead were stretched from Washington, DC southward, with arms stretched upward holding a bouquet of flowers, laid down, toe to flower, the line of bodies would reach to Charleston, South Carolina. That defines a Horrific War! What political disintegration caused it? You are about to find out.
In print form, this booklet is made up of 40 chapters presented on 46 sheets of 8-1/2×11-inch paper, printed front and back. The chapters are organized into six Sections. Section One presents “The Evolution of Two Cultures – North and South – from 1607 to 1860.” Here, Dr. Wilson, Mr. White and Vance Caswell present relevant history in 7 chapters. Section Two, “African Americans in the Southern Culture,” contains 3 chapters written by Caswell, Barbara Marthal and Les Tucker. Section Three, “The Rise of Political Sectionalism in the Northern States – Inciting Secession,” contains 5 chapters written by Egon Tausch, Wilson and White, all essential to the student’s understanding. Section Four, “The War Between the States . . .” contains 13 chapters by Wilson, White, Caswell, Steve Litteral, Karen Stokes, Patrick Kealey and Earl Ijames, which present all necessary facets of the history, leaving none untouched. Section Five, “After the Conquest – Consequences of Political Sectionalism and Horrific War,” contains 7 chapters by Litteral, Tausch, William Cawthon, Joe Stromberg, Joyce Bennett and Gail Jarvis, and none doubt the importance of their writing. Section Six, “Discussion Subjects and Concluding Information,” contains 5 chapters by White, Marthal, Paul Graham and H. V. Traywick, wrapping up the history and encouraging thought and discussion. Each chapter ends with suggestions for class discussion and a few recommended reading resources, because reflection and discussion are keys to good understanding.
The primary way present-day historians mislead students is not by telling untruths, but by omitting history critical to truthful learning, what the Society calls “the sin of omission.” We correct that deception. Here you learn the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. If not already of age, you will soon be voting. Please apply the wisdom gained here, for you are America’s future. We, the authors, hope parents, teachers, students and those “beyond” accept the approach we have taken to enhance everyone’s understanding in all 50 states.
Table of Contents
The 6 sections and 40 chapters in this book are as follows, most chapters limited to two pages, a few to one page, a few more. In these chapters we authors are not presenting a comprehensive history of the eras and regions involved, but only those portions of the histories that are not readily available but keenly relevant and so essential to achieving the thorough understanding we hope you are seeking.
Section One: The Evolution of Two Cultures – North and South – From 1607 to 1860
Chapter 1 – Origins of the Northern and Southern Cultures, 1600s and 1700s, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 2 – The First American War for Independence, by Vance Caswell of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 3 – Thirteen Free and Independent States Join in a Constitution; George Washington Presides Over the New Common Government; Alexander Hamilton Has an Agenda and Thomas Jefferson Disagrees, 1783 – 1800, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 4 – The Virginia Dynasty: Spectacular Growth of the Union of the States, 1801 – 1824, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 5 – Expansion and Conflict of the Northern and Southern Cultures to 1860, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 6 – Westward Expansion to the Pacific and Efforts by Two Cultures to Control Political Power, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Section Two: African Americans in the Southern Culture
Chapter 8 – African-American Bondage in World Perspective, by Vance Caswell of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 9 – More on Americans of African Descent, by Barbara Marthal of Tennessee, M. Ed., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 10 – Characteristics of the African American People During the 1850’s, by Leslie R. Tucker, Ph.D. of Oklahoma, S. I. S. H.
Section Three: The Rise of Political Sectionalism in the Northern States, Inciting Secession
Chapter 11 – The Mexican War, Expansion to California, and the “Compromises of 1850,” by Egon Richard Tausch of Texas, S. I. S. H.
Chapter 12 – Understanding the conflict between the North and South over the Role of the Federal Government in the Economy, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 13 – Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the Anti-Slavery Movement in the Northern States and the Necessity of Understanding the Divergent Passions for Exclusionism, Deportationism and Abolitionism, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 14 – Bleeding Kansas, the Emigrant Aid Societies and John Brown – a Story of 1850’s Political Prejudice, Terrorism and Propaganda, pitting the Northern against the Southern Cultures, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S.I.S.H
Chapter 15 – The Rise of Political Sectionalism in the Northern States, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Let’s talk about how to properly study history. Trained as a chemical engineer, the Scientific Method of study is a firmly ingrained habit. I always select “scientifically correct” truth over “politically correct” truth, even when that feels harsh. I seek proof of accusations and claims, for “it is the victors who write the history of military and political conquests.”
Section Four: The War Between the States, Including State Secession, President Lincoln’s Response, Four Years of War, the POW Story, and the African American Story.
Chapter 16 – The Nature of the Union and the Right of State Secession, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 17 – The Secession of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, the Birth of the Confederate States of America, and the Election of Jefferson Davis, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S.I.S.H
Chapter 18 – The Response to Secession by President Lincoln and the Republican Governors of the Northern States: Their Fort Sumter “First Shot” Strategy to Launch the Subjugation of Democrat Border States and Proceed with the Invasion, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 19 – In Response to Lincoln’s War Proclamation, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas Secede, and the Civilized Native American Nations Choose Sides, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 20 – Federal Military Occupation of the Border States, 1861 – 1865, by Clyde N. Wilson of S. C., Ph.D., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 21 – Fourteen Battles in Four Years of War, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 22 – Abraham Lincoln: Fact and Fiction, by Vance Caswell of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 23 – Comparing the Two Armies with Regard to Size, Leadership, Resourcefulness, Materiel, Commitment, etc., by Steve Litteral of Illinois, S.I.S.H.
Chapter 24 – The Federal War Against Southern Civilians, by Karen Stokes of S. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 25 – Pondering Why Slaves Refrained from Attacking Owners’ Families, by Patrick J. Kealey of California, S. I. S. H.
Chapter 26 – The Story of African American Support of Confederate Forces and, during 1863-1865, of those Inducted into Federal African American Regiments, by Earl L. Ijames of N. C., S.I.S.H.
Chapter 27 – The Sufferings of the Prisoners of War and Why it Happened, by Karen Stokes of S. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 28 – A Personal Story of a Tennessee Family and a South Carolina Family, by Howard Ray and Judith Willis White of N. C., S. I. S. H.
Section Five: After the Conquest – Consequences of Political Sectionalism and Horrific War
Chapter 29 – The Cost of the War in Lives Lost and Families Shattered, by William Cawthon of Alabama, S.I.S.H.
Chapter 30 – The Cost of the War in Financial Terms, by Joseph Stromberg of Georgia, S.I.S.H.
Chapter 31 – The Cost of the War to the Northern States – They Also Lost Their State Rights, by Steve Litteral of Illinois, S.I.S.H.
Chapter 32 – Political Reconstruction in Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri, by Joyce Bennett of Maryland, S. I. S. H.
Chapter 33 – Political Reconstruction in the Defeated Southern States, by Egon Richard Tausch of Texas, S.I.S.H.
Chapter 34 – How Political Reconstruction Affected the Lives of African American People and Native American People, by Gail Jarvis of Georgia, S. I. S. H.
Chapter 35 – How Political Reconstruction Affected the Lives of the White Southern People, by Gail Jarvis of Georgia, S. I. S. H.
Section Six: Discussion Subjects and Concluding Information.
Chapter 36 – “Recapping the Big Puzzle:” Simply Understanding Why the War Between the States was Not “About” Slavery, by Paul C. Graham of S. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 37: What If Bonded African Americans (Slaves) Had Benefitted from Gradual Emancipation with Training and Freedom from Political Agendas?, by Barbara G. Marthal of Tennessee, M. Ed., S. I. S. H,
Chapter 38 – What Was the War of 1861-1865 All About?, by H. V. Traywick, Jr. of Virginia, S.I.S.H.
Chapter 39 – How and Why to Study History, by Howard Ray White of N. C., S. I. S. H.
Chapter 40 – Thanks to Our Authors and Our Encouragement to Student Readers, by Howard Ray White of N. C., co-editor, S.I.S.H.
Appendix 1: Our List of Society Members Who Wrote this Work and a Bit about Each.
Appendix 2 – Resources for Further Study, by Dr. Clyde N. Wilson and Howard Ray White, co-editors.